These plates contain colonies of bacteria. He became one of the first few people who started work at the ‘Biozentrum’ which had been recently constructed to house the different departments of microbiology, biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology, pharmacology and structural biology. I started my new appointment at the University of Basel in October 1971 after having spent one year as a visiting Miller Research Professor at the Department of Molecular Biology of the University of California in Berkeley. He also made other important contributions to science policy. Nobel Media AB 2021. He received an offer from the ‘University of Southern California’ in Los Angeles in the summer of 1958 after completing his PhD to work with Joe Bertani who had collaborated earlier with Jean Weigle in the research on ‘bacteriophages’. Discover Your Abilities and Aspirations! Since my coming to Basel, I devoted relatively little of my time to further studies on restriction and modification mechanisms. at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les This was when direct financial help was not available from the Swiss federal government. Several outreach organisations and activities have been developed to inspire generations and disseminate knowledge about the Nobel Prize. It was already known that bacteria could break down viruses called phages. Not only did I always enjoy a continued contact with the students, but I also considered teaching as a welcome obligation to keep my scientific interests wide. Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. D student, and John Smith, working for various lengths of time with us, succeeded in careful in vivo and in vitro measurements on methylation to validate and extend the earlier conclusions. Werner Arber (Wikimedia Image) Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, Werner Arber was instrumental in discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. These can be grouped into three strategies with different qualities with regard to their contributions to biological evolution. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. My research interests focus on mechanisms to promote and to inhibit the exchange of genetic information between microorganisms: DNA restriction and modification systems; genetic recombination mechanisms, including transposition and site-specific inversion and their relevance for genetic rearrangements; and spontaneous mutagenesis and microbial evolution. It was already known that bacteria could break down viruses called phages. It is especially well known for its degree programs in film, law, music, public administration, physical therapy, business, engineering, and social work. He then enrolled at the ‘Swiss Federal Institute of Technology’ located in Zurich under the ‘University of Geneva’ and studied physics and chemistry for his diploma in ‘Natural Sciences’ from 1949 to 1953. From 1949 to 1953 I studied towards the diploma in Natural Sciences at the Swiss Polytechnical School in Zurich. Read more >> William Smith (1769-1839). The first is scientific and tends as just stated to better understand what nature does in its nonhomologous genetic exchange. It is in the last year of this study that I made my first contacts with fundamental research, when working on the isolation and characterisation of a new isomer of Cl, The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978, Werner Arber - Nobel Lecture: Promotion and Limitation of Genetic Exchange. In 1981 he became a member of the ‘World Knowledge Dialogue Scientific Board’ and also a member of the ‘Pontifical Academy of Sciences’. Several years before, Bertani had isolated and characterised another bacteriophage of E. coli, P1. The opportunity made Arber give up his job involving electron microscopy and change over to research in genetics which became a passion with him over the years. Both of these kinds of applications have their cultural values. He studied Natural Sciences at the Swiss Polytechnical School in Zurich from 1949 to 1953. In the story the DNA has been named as the King ruling over a kingdom of subjects who are the bacteria. Several years later Urs Kühnlein, a Ph. Phage P1 rapidly had become a very welcome tool of bacterial geneticists, since it gives general transduction, i.e. He received many offers from various laboratories for post-doctoral work as his doctoral thesis was highly appreciated by the genetics fraternity. 95, 166- 172, 1976) who encountered such a new system in their work with Salmonella recombinants. It is virtually impossible to list them all in this context, but my warmest collective thanks go to all of them. The king has many servants. He had initially started out as an assistant in a biophysics laboratory who was required to maintain electron microscopes in proper working condition. Arber was studying an earlier known phenomenon, “host controlled restriction of bacteriophages”, and found that this … In 1965 he was promoted to the post of ‘Extraordinary Professor for Molecular Genetics’ by the ‘University of Geneva’. In the 1950’s the Biophysics Laboratory at the University of Geneva was lucky enough to receive each summer for several months the visit of Jean Weigle. She did her PhD with Swiss scientist Werner Arber and in the process discovered restriction enzymes, proteins that can cut DNA at precise points. Born in: Gränichen, Aarau, Aargau, Switzerland, awards: 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, See the events in life of Werner Arber in Chronological Order. Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. WERNER ARBER Summary Applications of scientific knowledge often refer to technological uses, but their impact on our world view can also be of great importance. Their work would lead t She did her PhD with Swiss scientist Werner Arber and in the process discovered restriction enzymes, proteins that can cut DNA at precise points. Werner Arber and some more scientists had already started work on the findings of another Nobel laureate named Salvador Luria during the late 1950s and early 1960s. American microbiologist. Arber started to work with Joe Bertani on a ‘bacteriophage’ of the E. Coli virus which Bertani had isolated a few years earlier. Shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans for the discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. (Dan Nathans passed away in 1999.) In January 2011 he was made the president of the ‘Pontifical Academy of Sciences’ by Pope Benedict XVI. Werner Arber's 170 research works with 7,182 citations and 10,774 reads, including: Genetic engineering represents a safe approach for innovations improving nutritional contents of major food crops However, a lucky coincidence rapidly dissipated these concerns. This is why the first electron micrographs of phage lambda were made in Geneva. Look for popular awards and laureates in different fields, and discover the history of the Nobel Prize. Weigle had become a biologist doing research on ‘bacteriophage lamda’ while studying at the ‘Department of Biology’ under the ‘California Institute of Technology, Pasadena’. I was born on June 3rd, 1929 in Gränichen in the Canton of Aargau, Switzerland, where I went to the public schools until the age of 16. The project could bring insight into the nature of radiation damage to genetic material and its repair mechanisms, as well as of the stimulation of genetic recombination by radiation. Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. The first step to accomplish this was easy thanks to a hint received from Esther Lederberg to look for cotransduction of the Ma1+ and lambdaS characters. He led Germany's efforts in World War II (1939-45) to develop an atomic bomb Werner Herzog When I started investigations on the mechanisms of host-controlled modification, I did not of course imagine that this sidetrack would keep my interest for many years. D. thesis on lambda-gal, although written in French, had been read, or, what is perhaps more essential, understood in its conclusions by many leading microbial geneticists. His main research involved enzymes present in bacteria that have been infected by a virus and how the enzymes change the DNA of the virus to protect the bacteria. In 1968 he received an offer of professorship at the ‘University of Basel’. These years were devoted to hard work to consolidate the preliminary data and the concepts resulting from them, and to extend the acquired notions, in particular with regard to the mechanisms of modification by nucleotide methylation, with regard to the genetic control of restriction and modification and with regard to the enzymology and molecular mechanisms of these reactions. It soon also became obvious that restriction and modification were properties of the bacterial strains and acted not only on infecting bacteriophage DNA, but also on cellular DNA as manifested in conjugation experiments. Shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans for the discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. Additional contributions to this goal come from contacts with other nearby University Institutes as well as with the private research Institutions in the city. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1932 for his work on quantum mechanics. ... Werner Arber. This may be the reason why I received offers to spend additional postdoctoral time in several excellent laboratories. I was lucky to benefit from such a support form 1965 to 1970. He was the former professor of experimental physics at the University of Geneva. However, the strains thus obtained still did not allow an efficient propagation of lambda. Another family is formed by restriction and modification systems EcoP1 and EcoP15. Research Interests. This might have been related to a more general lack of public interest for this field, which was perhaps due to the economic structure of the city of Geneva and its environments. He is very long, but skinny. This made the so-called lambda-gal phage derivatives so defective that they were not able any longer to propagate as a virus. After explaining her in simple terms the basic concepts of the mechanisms of restriction enzymes, she, after some reflection, reexpressed this message in her own terms by a tale, which in the meantime has found wide diffusion around the world. Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. I then entered the gymnasium at the Kantonsschule Aarau where I got a B-type maturity in 1949. For a number of years Nick Gschwind, a Ph. That the basic idea for this search was good was recently shown by Len Bullas, Charles Colson and Aline van Pel (J. Gen. Microbiol. Werner Arber started this field of research in Geneva during the 1960’s. Werner Arber (1929) Born: Granichen, Switzerland. Prof. em. This view is here exemplified with recent developments in … Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. Werner Arber (*1929) is a famous microbiologist and geneticist. Before returning to Geneva at the beginning of 1960, he spent a few weeks working at the ‘Gunther Stent’ laboratory in Berkeley, the ‘Joshua Lederberg’ laboratory in Stanford and the ‘Salvador Luria’ laboratory at the ‘Massachusetts Institute of Technology’ in Cambridge. Werner Arber, Swiss microbiologist who was a corecipient of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work in molecular genetics, specifically the discovery and application of enzymes that break the giant molecules of DNA into manageable pieces. University of Southern California, private coeducational institution of higher education in Los Angeles, California. In 1965 I was promoted extraordinary professor for molecular genetics at the University of Geneva. NobelPrize.org. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted In 1962 Arber presented the findings more elaborately to the ‘Science Faculty’ at the ‘University of Geneva’ for which he was awarded by the university. In each bacterium there is a king. He used his Nobel Prize money to invite his friends for this walk. Insight into Molecular Evolution - Practical and Philosophical Consequences. by the Laureate. Our two daughters Silvia and Caroline were born in 1968 and in 1974, respectively. In fact, one of the at first sight rather frustrating observation was that lysates of lambda-gal, which indeed could still cause the infected host cell to lyse as does wild type phage lambda, did not contain any structural components of lambda (phage particles, heads or tails) discernible in the electron microscope. He studied at the public schools in Granichen until he was 16. . In response to their interest and understanding for my scientific activities, I have tried to give them my personal affection needed for a harmonious life. If a foreign king invades a bacterium, this servant can cut him in small fragments, but he does not do any harm to his own king. Research Interests. One of the first experiments after my return to Geneva was to render E. coli B and its radiation resistant strain B/r sensitive to phage lambda. ... Werner Arber. Contributions, and controversy over recognition of Dussoix's contribution towards Werner Arber Nobel Prize Dussoix-Roulland was a member of the research groups of two future Nobel Prizewinners (Werner Arber (for discovery of restriction enzymes), and the group of Harold Varmus and J. Michael Bishop (for the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes). After returning to Geneva he started working on the bacteriophage of E.Coli. Very rapidly, thanks to the stimulating help by Jean Weigle and Grete Kellenberger, this turned out to be extremely fruitful. At a time before the Swiss Universities received direct financial help from the federal government, the Swiss National Science Foundation awarded “personal grants” to qualified researchers to allow them to guide projects of fundamental research at a Swiss University. Werner Arber is a Swiss microbiologist and a geneticist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the discovery of the process by which enzymes could be used to break down the DNA molecules into smaller fragments without losing their inherent characteristics and could then be studied easily. For us human beings these instructions of the king are a mystery. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/werner-arber-7428.php, Famous Role Models You Would Like To Meet. Werner Arber Werner Arber was born on June 3, 1929, in Granichen, Switzerland. I was also anxious to know how the restriction of phage growth and the adaptation of lambda to the new host strain worked. It is in the last year of this study that I made my first contacts with fundamental research, when working on the isolation and characterisation of a new isomer of Cl34, with a halflife of 1.5 seconds. I was extremely lucky to receive in my laboratory in the basement of the Physics Institute of the University of Geneva a number of first class graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior scientists. This model, which was published in 1953, was incorrect, but it did lay the foundation for James Watson and Francis Crick's correct model of DNA as a double helix. As an illustration that my work has not always been easy and accompanied by success, I would like to refer to my long, fruitless and thus largely unpublished attempts to find experimental evidence for the diversification of restriction and modification systems in the course of evolution. Shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans for the discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. At the end of the 1950’s, a special credit had been voted for by the Swiss Parliament for research in atomic energy, including radiation effects on living organisms. These colonies remind me of a city with many inhabitants. When Silvia learned that I had been honored by the Nobelprize she not only wanted to know what this is, but also why I was chosen as a Laureate. From 1965 to 1970 he was able to procure financial help from the ‘Swiss National Science Foundation’ to carry out fundamental research. D. student, and Dorothea Scandella, a postdoctoral fellow, explored two other mechanisms found in some E. coli strains or mutants and affecting more specifically than restriction and modification systems particular steps in the propagation of bacteriophage lambda. In Basel, I was one of the first persons to work in the newly constructed Biozentrum, which houses several University Departments, in particular those of Biophysics, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Structural Biology, Cell Biology and Pharmacology. My father has discovered a servant who serves as a pair of scissors. While doing this job he grew familiar with the fundamental aspects of genetics and ‘bacteriophage physiology’ and became interested in a totally new field of research on ‘bacteriophage’. Very rapidly I realized that this was due to host-controlled modification, a phenomenon described for lambda and E. coli strains seven years earlier by Joe Bertani and Jean Weigle. My research interests focus on mechanisms to promote and to inhibit the exchange of genetic information between microorganisms: DNA restriction and modification systems; genetic recombination mechanisms, including transposition and site-specific inversion and their relevance for genetic rearrangements; and spontaneous mutagenesis and microbial evolution. He next joined the gymnasium at the ‘Kantonsschule Aarau’ from where he received a B-type maturity in 1949. Werner Arber was born in Gränichen, Switzerland, on June 3, 1929. From 1949 to 1953 I studied towards the diploma in Natural Sciences at the Swiss Polytechnical School in Zurich. 18 Jan 2021. In the summer of 1956, we learned about experiments made by Larry Morse and Esther and Joshua Lederberg on the lambda-mediated transduction (gene transfer from one bacterial strain to another by a bacteriophage serving as vector) of bacterial determinants for galactose fermentation. He received his PhD from the ‘University of Geneva’ in 1958 in which his thesis was on the characteristics of ‘bacteriophage’. These are thick and short, almost like balls. This diversity within the same house largely contributes to fruitful collaborative projects and it helps to keep horizons broad both in research and teaching. Not that I have lost my interest in them. Since these investigators had encountered defective lysogenic strains among their transductants, we felt that such strains should be included in the collection of lambda prophage mutants under study in our laboratory. (Nobel.org)-What do you think is your main contribution to science? Werner Arber (Wikimedia Image) Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, Werner Arber was instrumental in discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. Restriction enzyme is an enzyme that … For the last several years I have turned my principal interests to the intriguing activities of insertion elements and transposons, which by their actions on genetic rearrangements, seem to be the main driving forces of evolution in microorganisms. While doing this he became familiar with the basic issues related to genetics and the physiology of ‘bacteriophages’. Restriction enzyme is an enzyme that … Werner Arber Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland By comparing strategies of genetic alterations introduced in genetic engineering with spontaneously occurring genetic variation, we have come to conclude that both processes depend on several distinct and specific molecular mechanisms. Their experiments also brought important conclusions with regard to the concept of the sites of recognition on the DNA for the restriction and modification enzymes. After my Ph. American microbiologist. After having suffered a heart attack, he had left Geneva to become a researcher at the Department of Biology of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. English: Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. Linus Pauling's contribution to DNA research was the triple-helix DNA model. I see two ways to reach this goal. Famous Foreign Biologists and their Significant Contributions. Dr. Werner Arber is a pioneer in molecular biological research, investigating the structure and function of DNA and the interaction of genes and proteins. Werner Arber's 170 research works with 7,182 citations and 10,774 reads, including: Genetic engineering represents a safe approach for innovations improving nutritional contents of major food crops He discovered restriction enzymes. Mon. Hamilton O. Smith, American microbiologist who shared, with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans, the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of a new class of restriction enzymes that recognize specific sequences of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA … Their work would lead to the development of recombinant DNA technology. My father calls the king DNA, and the servants enzymes. It might thus be justified to finish this curriculum vitae by its reproduction: When I come to the laboratory of my father, I usually see some plates lying on the tables. Greek philosopher and early scientist. He did many researches on the bacterial restrictions’ systems and movable genetic elements, the modification and restriction of the ribonucleic acid. The king is like a book, in which everything is noted on the work to be done by the servants. Our postdoctoral workers Katsutoshi Mise, Shigeru Iida and Jürg Meyer brought important contributions to the understanding of these phenomena, mainly by the use of the bacteriophage P1 genome as a natural vector of transposable elements. This work would not have been possible without a very fruitful help by a large number of collaborators in my own laboratory and of colleagues working on related topics in their own laboratories. Luria had found that the viruses that infect bacteria known as ‘bacteriophages’ are themselves affected by hereditary mutations while inducing hereditary mutations in their hosts. Educated in the Swiss public school system, he entered the Federal Institute of Technology in … On the contrary, I was fortunate to be able to set up a junior group which under the leadership of Bob Yuan and more recently of Tom Bickle, became rapidly quite independent, and it continues to be very successful in its investigations on the more detailed aspects of the molecular mechanisms of restriction and modification. I consider our insights into the natural laws of biological evolution as one of my contributions … Shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans for the discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. From 1965 to 1970 he was 16 my interest in them scissors to out... 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